We Hoosiers like to celebrate our accomplishments. When we complete civic projects, the festivities often include things like a ribbon-cutting, speeches from dignitaries or stakeholders, balloons, music, and even fireworks. Pretty low on the list of typical events are 2,000-person confederate raids that pillage our hometown. But that’s what the nearly-finished Ripley County Courthouse in Versailles went through in 1863 just as construction was wrapping up. The perpetrator was General John Hunt Morgan, and his raid took place over 1,000 miles of Union territory across Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, and West Virginia before ultimately failing. Morgan’s Raid is just about a hundred percent irrelevant to our daily lives today, but for a community weathering the Civil War, the story was entirely different. For a brief moment in time, Ripley County -always a step behind its better-developed peers due to its swampy soil, heavy forests, and remoteness from the river- was thrust right into the middle of the conflict.
In an attempt to divert Union attention from the Vicksburg and Gettysburg campaigns, Morgan and his posse entered the county on July 13, 1863 after stealing two steamboats in Kentucky, making their way to Versailles where they were met by a rag-tag militia and other citizens in front of the courthouse. The confederates dismantled the locals in short order, seizing their weapons and destroying them. Though the county’s money had been hastily hidden, the raiders still managed to swipe several thousand dollars of treasury funds (a thousand bucks then was equal to about $20,000 today) along with jewels from the Masonic Lodge located in an adjacent county office building1. Thankfully, the baubles were returned once Morgan -a Mason himself- found out about it. Equally thankfully, the courthouse, along with the rest of the community, were spared destruction. After capturing 6,000 Union soldiers, sabotaging 34 bridges, interrupting rail travel at sixty different points, seizing countless amounts of food and supplies, and generally spreading panic and shock through the northern states, Morgan and his men were finally captured in eastern Ohio2 two weeks after they first set foot in Ripley County. All told, the raid lasted just over a month and a half.
It goes without saying that nothing as dramatic as Morgan’s Raid has happened at the Ripley County Courthouse over the next 157 years. Heck, the only event that remotely matches up is probably when Milan -just northeast of Versailles- beat first-ranked Muncie Central in the 1954 state basketball championship, the incredible match that gave us the movie Hoosiers. The day after the game, more than 40,000 people3 came to Milan (population 1,150) to help celebrate as the team returned home. No weapons were destroyed, Masonic Temples looted, or treasury funds stolen, though any celebrants who did so would have probably been quickly forgiven. At least until they got to Ohio!
Now, I’m the kind of person who hates when carpetbagging journalists oversimplify things. I hate to distill the entire history of Ripley County down to two events, so let’s go back a bit to the early 1800s, when the county was made up of fresh land. Settlers first began to appear in the area around 1815 and the county was quickly formed two years later. In 1818, a committee was chosen to select a site for that county seat. It was a painless process compared to some of Indiana’s other settlements- wealthy Madison speculator John Paul donated a hundred acres for that purpose (knowing full well he could buy the land back on the cheap once the town was incorporated and then sell it again at a premium- savvy!), and the committee was paid for all of sixteen total days of work. That initial sale of lots funded the first courthouse, though, a brick building measuring forty feet square that was preceded by a basic jail and a stray-pen4. Containing wild animals was a huge problem back then! As early as 1859, a fence had been constructed around the courthouse square to keep animals out, but the animals might as well have included local residents in the eyes of county officials: people were forbidden to engage in games and amusements on the courthouse lawn, though the commissioners did allow public meetings and the use of the courthouse bell to signify funerals and church services5. A stoic group these people were.
Construction on the current courthouse commenced in 1860, and it took three years to build it, a timeframe likely dictated by the Civil War. Though the Greek Revival style was exceedingly common amongst government buildings up to the Civil War, the Ripley County Courthouse features an Italianate influence equally, rare for Indiana courthouses constructed this early. Where Greek Revival buildings tended to be rectangular, the courthouse in Versailles was originally t-shaped. Unlike most classical-type designs that included columns that supported a triangular pediment, this one lacks both, instead featuring rectangular, nine-over-nine windows and flat brick pilasters underneath a glass oculus. The building’s thick, projecting cornice and brick construction are both taken directly from Italianate designs.
As of 1883, the courthouse square featured three buildings: the courthouse, of course; a two-story Masonic Hall and office building that Morgan’s men stole from at the southwest side of the square, and a T-shaped building at the northwest corner containing the sheriff’s office. Both of those latter structures are gone now6. Today, a modern cannon sits where the Masonic building once stood, though nothing commemorates the former site of the sheriff’s office. A recent brick and limestone building that looks like it belongs on the campus of Purdue University sits across the street, holding most of Ripley County’s administrative offices. As do most of its peers, it lacks the gravitas that the 1860s building supplies.
The courthouse reached its golden anniversary in 1912, and officials celebrated by upgrading it for another fifty years by adding terrazzo floors and marble wainscoting in the hallways, while finishing its partial basement with a furnace room and restrooms. Immediately inside the building’s main entrance, a steel staircase replaced the original wooden version. 1932 brought even bigger changes when resident Mrs. Florence Wingeate Grether died and bequeathed a memorial for her dead husband Charles in the form of a new clock. Until then, the courthouse had only featured a small, octagonal cupola rising from a low base attached to its gabled east side, so a three-part tower had to be constructed to contain it. Nevertheless, a clock was purchased from the I.T. Verdin Machine Company of Cincinnati and Walter Rump, a contractor from nearby Dillsboro, designed and built the tower we see today. Interestingly, Mrs. Grether’s bequest stipulate that the clock faces and works were to be owned by the town of Versailles in perpetuity, while the courthouse and tower remain owned by the county. That weird arrangement continues to this day.
The courthouse remained in that configuration until 1970 when, upon turning 108 years old, it received a once-over by architects David B. Hill and Associates from Seymour. In order to address space concerns and the building’s accessibility as a whole, an addition to the west was completed to house an elevator and second staircase. Because the second floor of the courthouse -holding the courtrooom- was naturally much taller than the first, a third floor was carved out of it7, providing space for a second courtroom. For the price of $392,000, Ripley County received a courthouse that functioned just as well as any of its peers. Unfortunately, the structure had been painted white over the years, so commissioners decided to sandblast it to restore the building back to its original buff state. It seems as though the sandblasting was a little aggressive, though, and it left the brick in too “fragile8” a condition to leave without painting over it. Today, the courthouse -as well as its addition- are painted the same color of brick that approximates its historic hue.
Today, as it has been for most of its existence, Versailles is a sleepy community. More than John Hunt Morgan and more than MIlan’s Bobby Plump, the town seems indebted to and defined by James H. Tyson, the co-founder of Walgreens, who provided funds for the striking Art Deco Tyson Temple Church, a high school, a gymnasium, a library, and a water treatment plant9. Nevertheless, the 1863 Ripley County Courthouse still stands at the center of Tyson’s gifts, Morgan’s raid, and Plump’s miracle shot. What’ll be next for this town of amazing events and buildings?
Ripley County (pop. 28,419, 55/92)
Built: 1860, remodeled 1932, expanded 1972
Cost: $16,250 ($432,718 in 2016)
Architect: Thomas Pattison
Style: Greek Revival/Italianate
Courthouse Square: Shelbyville Square
Height: 2 stories
Current use: Courts and some county offices
1 An Atlas of Ripley County, Indiana. D.J. Lake & Co. [Philadelphia]. 1883. Print.
2 McHenry, Lawrence. “Ripley County History” WPA Library of Congress. 1938-39. Web. Retrieved 4/13/20.
3 “Relive the ‘Milan Miracle’ in new documentary” WTHR. March 30, 2016. National Broadcasting Corporation [Indianapolis]. Web. Retrieved 4/13/20.
4 Smith, Alan F. Tales of Versailles. Foursep Publications [Milwaukee]. 1999. Print.
5 Ripley County Commissioners Record, March Term, 1859
6 National Register of Historic Places, Ripley County Courthouse, Versailles, Ripley County, Indiana, National Register # 09000762.
7 ) Indiana Landmarks (2013). Ripley County. Indianapolis. Indiana Landmarks. Web. Retrieved 4/13/20.
8 Ripley County Commissioners Record, Book 22, p.14. Print.
9 ”Our Town’s Rich History” Town of Versailles. 2020. Web. Retrieved 4/13/20.